Experiences of Contracting with the Private Sector: a Selective Review

This paper reviews some experiences of social agencies contracting with the private sector to provide health care services. It focuses on the capacity of this mechanism to improve access to services by the poor. The term private sector is used to cover both for-profit and not-for-profit providers of health services. The paper draws on these experiences to suggest some lessons and basic guidelines for contracting. [author’s description]

Private-Public Partnership in Georgia: a Case Study of Contracting an NGO to Provide Specialist Health Services

This case study provides details of a partnership that emerged in Georgia following the initiation of health sector reforms in 1995. It mainly focuses on describing the details of how and why the public purchaser contracted a non-governmental provider to deliver a set of health services in Georgia. The case study is discussed with proper attention to the context within which this arrangement developed. The nature of the services provided was paediatric cardio-surgery, which can hardly be considered a basic essential health service.

Performance-Based Reimbursement Scheme: a Final Report of a Pilot Study

The NGO Service Delivery Program (NSDP) developed a system ensuring better access of the health services to the poorest segment of the population, along with raising revenue by providing fee-for services to the better off population. The former strategy highlights a safety net policy for the poorest segment, who are identified by participatory rapid appraisal technique and handed out a health benefit card. The latter strategy helps the NGOs to revise their service charges according to local demand and other factors. This report analyzes this pilot effort and its drawbacks and makes recommendations based on lessons learned. [adapted from author]

Mobilizing Local Resources to Support Health Programs

This issue of The Manager discusses the role of local resources in strengthening health services. It will help health managers at the local level to identify types of local resources that may be available to them, decide on strategies for mobilizing these resources, and assess the value of such resources to their organization or program. [author’s description]

Private Provider Networks: The Role of Viability in Expanding the Supply of Reproductive Health and Family Planning Services

As the private sector plays an increasingly critical role in the delivery of reproductive health/family planning (RH/FP) services, donors and public health ministries are turning their attention to business arrangements that offer the potential to increase access to high-quality priority health services. Private provider networks hold the promise of cost effectively expanding the scale of private practice, and are increasingly being considered as a way to achieve national public health objectives.

Opportunities for Global Health Initiatives in the Health System Action Agenda

There is currently much debate about the role Global Health Initiatives (GHI) should play in strengthening health systems. There is increasing realization that without more support to help countries build health system capacity, the resources mobilized by GHIs are unlikely to reach their full potential. This paper argues that health-system strengthening requires improving capacity in critical components of health systems in order to get more equitable and sustained improvement across health services and outcomes. This paper discusses these critical components, including human resource development within the broader context of health system strengthening. [adapted from author]

Finding Private-Sector Support for Primary Health Care in Bangladesh

NGOs that provide basic health care to the poor must become less dependent on donor support by diversifying their funding. The NGO Service Delivery Program (NSDP), a USAID-funded health care program in Bangladesh, is working with NGOs to find corporate sponsorship. [publisher’s description]

Reaching Out, Scaling Up: Eight Case Studes of Home and Community Care for and by People with HIV/AIDS

This report focuses on HIV/AIDS home and community care projects and programs that have been able to scale up or reach out, and in doing so have brought an improved quality of life to people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS. The initiatives are widely spread geographically, with five from Africa, two from Asia, and one from Latin America. The final chapter of this report revisits some of the main lessons learned through the practices, and examines both commonalities and differences. [adapted from author]

DREAM: An Integrated Faith-Based Initiative to Treat HIV/AIDS in Mozambique

[This case study evaluates the] Drug Resources Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition (DREAM) program, created by the Community of Sant’Egidio to fight AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. The project takes a holistic approach, combining Highly Active Anti- Retroviral Therapy (HAART) with the treatment of malnutrition, tuberculosis, malaria, and sexually transmitted diseases. It also strongly emphasizes health education at all levels. DREAM aims to achieve its goals in line with the gold standard for HIV treatment and care. [author’s description]

Business and Malaria: A Neglected Threat?

This report discusses the impacts of malaria on business. It reviews the academic literature on the impacts of malaria on economies and businesses, presents data from survey on the business impacts of malaria, discusses the actions the private sector can take to combat malaria, and reviews examples of business malaria programs. The final section makes some recommendations for businesses considering engagement in malaria control. [adapted from author]

Unraveling the Factors Behind the Growth of the Indonesian Family Planning Private Sector

This case study documents Indonesia’s family planning experience with a view to understanding the factors and conditions that led to the remarkable growth in the private sector’s role in delivering family planning services. [from abstract]

HIV Antiretroviral Therapy: Can Franchising Expand Coverage?

This paper reviews the experiences of franchising and discusses the opportunities and implications for governments and donors of franchising for HIV and AIDS services. [from author]

President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Report on Work Force Capacity and HIV/AIDS

This report identifies innovative approaches countries are using to address the shortages of health care workers and describes efforts to achieve long-term sustainability. [author’s description]

Progress on Global Access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy: A Report on "3 by 5" and Beyond

This report describes global progress on the “3 by 5” (Treating 3 million by 2005: making it happen) project in scaling up access to [HIV/AIDS] antiretroviral therapy and outlines the areas in which important progress has been made and lessons learned. It also outlines the remaining challenges and roadblocks to treatment access. [author’s description]

Chapter 2 (Strengthening Health Systems) provides an overview of HRH related approaches and progress.

Using Collaborative Approaches to Reach Human Resources for Health (HRH) Goals

The purpose of this technical brief is to offer best practices and lessons learned from a combination of key themes in current literature and practice regarding the benefits of collaborative ventures. The brief provides information on the benefits of participating in a collaborative venture, the challenges and common pitfalls that can occur and what it takes to collaborate productively and to sustain the collaboration. [adapted from author]

Global Religious Health Assets Mapping

GRHAM is a CCIH initiative, in collaboration with numerous partners, to increase the awareness of Faith-based Organizations (FBOs) in providing essential health services around the world. GRHAM strives to put FBOs and Christian Health Associations (CHAs) “on the map” to improve networking, including collaboration with and between christian health associations, medical missions, ministries of health and multilateral donors. [from website description]

Planning, Developing and Supporting the Faith-Based Health Workforce: African Church Health Associations' Human Resources for Health Mini-Forum

The African Church Health Associations’ Human Resources for Health Mini-Forum was held to re-energize the CHA’s human resources working group. The objectives of the forum were to: expand the HRH knowledge base; help develop a critical mass of faith-based HRH advocates; clarify the “Terms of Reference” for an HRH working group and plan for sustainability and next steps; and to generate action plans for HRH practices and identify technical assistance needs. [adapted from author]

Engaging Local Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Response to HIV/AIDS

During the past few years, a number of key donor programs have scaled up their global response to the crisis of HIV and AIDS… The goal of this paper is to begin a discussion among donors, international and local NGOs, and multilateral and U.S. government representatives on how to effectively engage indigenous partners and transfer much-needed resources. [from preface]

Public Private Partnership for Equitable Provision of Quality Health Services

This report presents the findings of an independent Technical Review that focused on the promotion of Public Private Partnership for equitable provision of quality health services in Tanzania. [author’s description]

Pro-Poor Health Services: The Catholic Health Network in Uganda

This article documents the experiences of the Catholic health network in Uganda and its umbrella organization, the Uganda Catholic Medical Bureau (UCMB) in making health services work for poor people. It demonstrates how the pro-poor ethos-derived from a longstanding tradition and the mission of “healing by treating and preventing diseases, with a preferential option for the less privileged”-supported by “soft” regulation and technical assistance from the umbrella organization can induce a process of change in a network of providers. [author’s description]

Improving Health Services and Strengthening Health Systems: Adopting and Implementing Innovative Strategies

In recent years, a number of specific strategies for improving health services and strengthening health systems have been consistently advocated. In order to advise governments, WHO commissioned this exploratory study to examine more closely the track record of these strategies in twelve low-income countries. [author’s description]

Working with the Non-State Sector to Achieve Public Health Goals

The purpose of this paper is to begin to develop consensus about key challenges and effective strategies in working with the non-state sector to achieve public health goals. [Author’s description]

Contracting-Out Reproductive Health and Family Planning Services: Contracting Management and Operations

This primer introduces key aspects of contracting and summarizes key lessons from countries’ experiences in contracting-out. In doing so, it is intended to serve the practical needs of contracting practicioners in developing countries that are considering contracting as a way to deliver RH/FP services. Intended users include country-level decision makers, contract operation managers, and mission officers and advisers from donor agencies. [publisher’s description]

Community Development and Its Impact on Health: South Asian Experience

Most South Asian governments have concentrated on emulating a Western style of healthcare service, with the result that an elite few are overmedicalised whereas the majority are neglected. However, community participation in the development of local health services could provide a solution. [abstract]

Ghana Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) Initiative: Fostering Evidence-Based Organizational Change and Development in a Resource-Constrained Setting

An approach to evidence-based policy development has been launched in Ghana which bridges the gap between research and programme implementation. The Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) Initiative has employed strategies tested in the successful Navrongo experiment to guide national health reforms that mobilize volunteerism, resources, and cultural institutions for supporting community-based primary health care.

Human Resources for Health Exist in Communities

This paper describes three examples of human resource development in community-driven HIV/AIDS programmes. The basic proposition is that acknowledgement, inclusion of and support for community based health initiatives is necessary to understand fully where health action is occurring and where potential for expansion lies. The paper calls for an expanded definition of health systems encompassing work being carried out by communities who are at the frontline in responding to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Health care workers live in communities, and communities are providing health care.

Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI): Is it a New Model for Effective Public Private Cooperation in International Public Health?

The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) was established in 1999 to finance and speed the delivery of new and improved vaccines for children in the developing world. Through collaborative leadership and international funding, GAVI aims to improve health in developing countries, increase international public health equity, and serve as a model for others in the global health community. However, this paper questions the extent to which GAVI can actually achieve its goals.

Human Resources and National Health Systems: Shaping the Agenda for Action, Final Report

Some 60 participants from ministries of health, multilateral and bilateral international agencies, foundations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and professional organizations discussed and debated a range of issues in order to contribute to the objectives of this workshop, which were to: further the development of an HRH framework for policies; identify policy questions and agree upon an agenda for development of policy options; identify gaps in evidence and priorities for obtaining evidence on which to base policy; build capacity and partnership for action at country level. [author’s des

Workers for Priorities in Health

Chapter 1 of this document describes the environment that affects the health workforce. Chapter 2 presents an overview of what lessons can be learned from priority programmes that have already struggled with the consequences of HRH limitations. Chapter 3 discusses possible strategies that can help to overcome HRH constraints. The last chapter proposes an agenda for action. [Adapted from authors]

Report of the "Public-Private Interactions" Lekgotla, 11-12 July 2002, Kopanong, Gauteng

Public-Private health sector Interactions (PPI) are on the increase in South Africa. However, there are few mechanisms for the two sectors to routinely engage with each other. Such mechanisms are necessary to allow all stakeholders to understand better the motivations of, and the challenges that face, each sector and are a key part of the process of building trust between the sectors. The overall purpose of PPIs, and therefore of engagement between the public and private sectors, is to strengthen the overall health system for the benefit of all South Africans. [author’s description]