Integrated Services

Implementation of Integrated Care: the Empirical Validation of the Development Model for Integrated Care

This study empirically validated a model for integrated care in practice by assessing the relevance, implementation and plans of the elements in three integrated care service settings in The Netherlands. [from abstract]

Family Planning and HIV Services Toolkit

This toolkit is your one-stop source for evidence-based knowledge and promising practices to support the successful integration of family planning (FP) and HIV services. It summarizes the latest evidence and provides links to guidelines and tools to help you plan, manage, deliver, evaluate, and support integrated services. [adapted from publisher]

Scaling Up Integration: Development and Results of a Participatory Assessment of HIV/TB Services, South Africa

In South Africa the need to integrate HIV, TB and STI programmes has been recognised at a policy and organisation level; the challenge is now one of translating policies into relevant actions and monitoring implementation to ensure that the anticipated benefits of integration are achieved. This research set out to determine how middle level managers could be empowered to monitor the implementation of an effective, integrated HIV/TB/STI service. [from abstract]

What Does It Take to Make Integrated Care Work?

Around the world, only a few health care providers deliver integrated care effectively. Their experiences offer useful lessons for organizations that want to pilot integrated-care programs. [from author]

Integrated Approach of Community Health Worker Support for HIV/AIDS and TB Care in Angonia District, Mozambique

This paper provides a participant-observer perspective of the evolution of community health workers from vertical and isolated activities for TB, HIV and other specific diseases to an integrated community health team approach for tackling the main disease burden in a rural district of Mozambique. [from introduction]

Integrating Family Planning and VCT Services in Ethiopia: Experiences of Health Care Providers

This study was undertaken primarily to understand what effect the efforts to integrate family planning and VCT services in health facilities had on health care providers’ work and service delivery practices in two regions of Ethiopia. [from summary]

Integrating Family Planning and HIV Services Improves Service Quality

This study tested the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of two models for integrating HIV prevention services, including counseling and testing, within established family planning programs, and evaluated their quality against the standard practice. [from author]

Increasing Access to Contraception for Clients with HIV: a Toolkit

The toolkit was developed to facilitate improved access to appropriate and effective contraception for clients with HIV, especially through the strategic integration of family planning with HIV prevention, care, and treatment services.

Integrated AIDS Program Thika, Kenya

This case study evaluates a project in Kenya that concentrates on HIV and AIDS care and prevention through support and training of community volunteers to provide PLHA with HBC, widespread and diverse efforts to promote behavior change and raise awareness about HIV and AIDS, improving access to VCT, as well as capacity building efforts and direct material assistance for OVC and PLHA. [adapted from introduction]

Introducing Family Planning Services into Antiretroviral Program in Ghana: an Evaluation of a Pilot Intervention

This report documents the assessment of a family planning training program for providers to enable them to offer family planning counseling and methods, and make referrals where needed as part of antiretroviral therapy services in Ghana. [from summary]

Integrating HIV Services in Local Family Planning: the Expanded Community-Based Distribution Model and Zimbabwean Experience

This brief is a best practice model for improving the quality and accessibility of family planning and HIV services in rural communities in Zimbabwe. [from author]

Mothers in the Middle: Potential for Integrated Programs in Maternal Health

This presentation from the Scaling Up High-Impact FP/MNCH Best Practices in Asia and the Near East Technical Meeting covers the reasons to support integrated services and the challenges to this process.

Linking Family Planning with Postabortion Services in Egypt: Testing the Feasibility, Acceptability and Effectiveness of Two Models of Integration

This research study was undertaken to test the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of two models of integrating family planning services with postabortion services.

Integrating Family Planning Services into Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centers in Kenya: Operations Research Results

Providing contraceptive services at VCT centers is an opportunity to prevent unintended pregnancies among clients whose needs may not be met through traditional family planning services. Operations research in Kenya suggests that integrating family planning into VCT services is feasible and acceptable. An integration intervention improved providers’ discussions about fertility desires and contraceptive methods with clients, without compromising the length of client-provider interaction or client waiting time.

Options and Challenges for Converging HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in India: Findings from an Assessment in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh

The report aims to share findings from an assessment to explore how access to critical services for populations at risk of HIV and unintended pregnancy can be strengthened by converging HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and the National Aids Control Programme (NACP). The report provides information on the demand and opportunities for and the challenges of implementing HIV and SRH convergence in four states

Family Planning - Integrated HIV Services: a Framework for Integrating Family Planning and Antiretroviral Therapy Services

This document focuses on FP integration with HIV services, more specifically with HIV care and treatment services. It encourages supervisors or planners, service providers, and community-based personnel to consider opportunities for operationalizing client-responsive integration of FP and HIV services.

Integrating Family Planning with Antiretroviral Therapy Services in Uganda

As strides are made in the prevention and treatment of HIV, it is important to take advantage of opportunities to expand and integrate reproductive health services. Integration is an approach that uses a client visit as an opportunity to address other health and social needs beyond those that prompted the current health visit.

Packaging Health Services When Resources Are Limited: the Example of a Cervical Cancer Screening Visit

Increasing evidence supporting the value of screening women for cervical cancer once in their lifetime, coupled with mounting interest in scaling up successful screening demonstration projects, present challenges to public health decision makers seeking to take full advantage of the single-visit opportunity to provide additional services.

Integrating Counseling and Testing into Family Planning Services: What Happens to the Quality of FP

This presentation details a program to implement and evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and cost of two models of integration of HIV prevention information, and routine offer of provider initiated counselling and testing for HIV into family planning (FP) services in 18 health facilities in North West Province, South Africa. [adapted from abstract]

Integrating FP Services in VCT and PMTCT Sites: the Experience of Pathfinder International-Ethiopia in the Amhara Region

To maximize program impact with current resources, integration of Family Planning into existing HIV/AIDS programs is a very cost effective and an excellent point of entry. This is a study of an intervention program focused on initiating and also strengthening existing integration of FP into functional VCT, ART and PMTCT sites. The intervention encompassed an orientation on integration benefits to heads of health facilities; identification of challenges of integration and drawing of plan of action on how to overcome the challenges and improve integration.

Assessing Health Worker Performance of IMCI in Kenya

This case study describes how five Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) trainers and supervisors conducted an assessment of provider knowledge and skill to carry out IMCI at 38 facilities in two districts in Kenya. [author’s description]

Costing of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses in Bangladesh: a Study Based on Matlab Data

The purpose of this study is to estimate the cost implications of implementing the newly proposed Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses algorithm in first-level health care facilities in rural areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh policymakers need to know the cost of IMCI prior to its implementation so that they allocate adequate resources, particularly personnel and drugs, and the associated financial resources to health facilities. [from author]

Impact of QA Methods on Compliance with the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Algorithm in Niger

Research on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) shows that it is a scientifically sound way to treat sick children, but ways to ensure that it is implemented properly are lacking. This 1997-98 study examined and compared three implementation approaches: structured feedback of performance data, structured feedback of performance data where quality improvement (QI) teams were in place, and the formal World Health Organization training in districts with QI teams.

Does the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Cost More than Routine Care? Results from the United Republic of Tanzania

The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy seeks to reduce [childhood] deaths through three main components: improving the skills of health workers, improving health systems an improving family and community practices. IMCI has been shown to be associated with improved quality of care, which should result in improved health outcomes. However, concern about the costs of implementing IMCI had been given as a reason why some countries have not adopted it on a large scale. It is important, therefore, to assess whether IMCI does, in practice, cost more than routine care for children who are less than 5 years old, and if so, by how much…Here we present results from the cost components of the MCE study in the United Republic of Tanzania.

Integrating Family Planning and HIV/AIDS Services: a Digest of Key Resources

This first issue of Focus on… presents information about the benefits and challenges of linking HIV/AIDS services and family planning and related reproductive health care. To highlight the major issues of integration (also called linkages), Focus on… summarizes key points from selected resources—most from the past 3 years—that reflect field successes, lessons learned, and further avenues for research.

Acceptability and Feasibility of Introducing the WHO Focused Antenatal Care Package in Ghana

The Government of Ghana has adopted the WHO focused antenatal care (ANC) package in a move to improve access, quality and continuity of ANC services to pregnant women. As part of these efforts, the Government has exempted fees for ANC clients. The main objective of this study, undertaken by Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in collaboration with the Ghana Health Service (GHS), FRONTIERS, and with USAID funding, was to examine the extent to which adaptation of the package influenced quality of care received by pregnant women and its acceptability to both providers and clients. The study used a policy analysis and a situation analysis in ten intervention clinics in which the package had been introduced and four comparison clinics.

Acceptability and Sustainability of the WHO Focused Antenatal Care package in Kenya

To promote the health and survival of mothers and babies, Kenya has adapted the WHO goal-oriented Antenatal Care (ANC) package, popularly known as focused ANC (FANC). The Ministry of Health (MOH) has designed new guidelines for ANC services, placing emphasis on refocusing antenatal care, birth planning and emergency preparedness, and the identification, prevention and management of life threatening complications during pregnancy and childbirth. ANC visits are now used as an entry point for a range of other services, thus promoting comprehensive integrated service delivery. A major challenge, however, is whether the Kenyan health care system can cope with the implementation of this package.

Integrating Vertical Health Programmes into Sector Wide Approaches: Experiences and Lessons

This paper is a desk study which looks at experiences of integrating vertical health programmes into national delivery systems where government and donors have adopted a sector wide approach (SWAp) to supporting health sector reform. It was commissioned to facilitate decision making in SDC regarding future possible integration of the Tanzania Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme into national delivery systems and the SWAp process.[author’s description]

Meeting the Need: Strengthening Family Planning Programs

This report is designed as a general resource to help family planning program managers strengthen their programs and meet growing family planning needs…It offers a broad overview of key programmatic considerations. Each subsection includes a list of practical specialized resources and hands-on tools that can support program managers desiring to bring about programmatic change…

Working Together for Health: The World Health Report 2006 Policy Briefs

Intended to complement Working Together for Health: The World Health Report 2006, these policy briefs are intended to assist those who make and carry out health policy worldwide. The briefs address the following, Strengthening information and research on the health workforce: strategies for action; Investing in education for expanded capacity and lifelong learning; Making the most of the existing health workforce; Addressing the complex challenges of health worker migration; Bridging between health workers in separate public health programs; and Financing health workforce development. After describing an issue, the briefs propose ways to address it, many of which have been drawn from experience in countries. [author’s description]