Nongovermental Organizations

Does Involvement of Local NGOs Enhance Public Service Delivery? Cautionary Evidence from a Malaria-Prevention Evaluation in India

Using data from an experimental supportive intervention to India’s malaria control program, this paper studies the impact of leveraging local non-state capacity to promote mosquito net usage and recommended fever care-seeking patterns. The supportive activities were conducted simultaneously by three nongovernmental organizations in two endemic districts in the state of Orissa. The study finds that program impact varied significantly by location. [from abstract]

Vertical Funding, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Health System Strengthening: Perspectives of Public Sector Health Workers in Mozambique

The primary objective of this study was to solicit and identify perspectives on vertical aid among key Mozambican public sector health managers who must coordinate, implement, and manage the myriad projects, agencies, and resource flows that the increase in vertical funding has produced amid continued severe workforce staffing shortages. [from author]

Governance for Human Resources for Health: Case Stories from African Countries

The cases presented in this booklet aimed to allow nine non state actors (civil society organizations and faith-based organisations), to learn from each others’ experiences in influencing human resources for health policy formulation and implementation. [adapted from introduction]

Role of Civil Society in Human Resources for Health

The overall objective of the report is to analyse the role of civil society engagement in enhancing the health service delivery in Nepal. Health service delivery is associated with the efficiency of human resource for health. [from author]

Sudan's National Policy Towards Voluntary Sector in Health

This document outlines the Ministry’s policies regarding the role NGOs play in national health policy and health services, outlines strengths and weaknesses of NGO programs and outlines government standards for integrating and evaluating NGO services. [adapted from author]

NGO Code of Conduct for Health Systems

The NGO Code of Conduct for Health Systems Strengthening is a response to the recent growth in the number of international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) associated with the increase in aid flows to the health sector. It is intended to be used as a tool for service organizations and eventually for funders and host governments. The code serves as a guide to encourage NGO practices that contribute to building public health systems and discourage those that are harmful. [from introduction]

Reaching the Poor with Health Services: Cambodia

This brief reports on a project through Cambodia’s Ministry of Health which contracted health services to NGOs. Contracting NGOs to manage the primary health care system was found to be an effective means to increase service coverage and achieve a more pro-poor distribution of services in rural areas of Cambodia. [adapted from introduction]

India Local Initiatives Program: A Model for Expanding Reproductive and Child Health Services

The India Local Initiatives Program adapted a model used in Indonesia and Bangladesh to implement the government’s reproductive and child health strategy. From 1999 to 2003, three Indian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) provided services for 784,000 people in four northern states. This model proved to be a suitable platform upon which to build health-care service delivery and create behavioral change, and the NGOs quickly found ways to sustain and expand services. [from abstract]

Guatemala, Pro Redes Salud: Rapid Scale-Up of Primary Health Care Through NGOs

Before the project began, 300,000 remote rural inhabitants in the Mayan highlands lacked basic primary care, the NGO civil society in health lacked cohesion, and the MOH NGO granting program needed revising. From 2000 to 2004, the NGO Networks Project implemented a grants program that helped form networks of NGOs, strengthening health services and testing innovations in service delivery, and improved monitoring and evaluation.

Social Franchising of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Honduras and Nicaragua

This document outlines the outcome of three franchising projects implemented by Partners of Marie Stopes International (MSI) in Honduras and Nicaragua. The projects were designed to pilot full and partial social franchising models as part of an initiative to test and develop alternative forms of delivering quality sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services by a non government organisation (NGO). [abstract]

Mainstreaming Natural Family Planning: the IRH Experience in the Philippines

This report documents the efforts of the Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH) to integrate natural family planning methods into the health delivery system in the Phillipines. It discusses the venues used for implementation such as government and NGO partnerships as well as IRH’s training resources and activities for nurses and midwives on family planning. Finally, the report details best practices and lessons learned from the multi-year project.

Counting the Organizational Cost of HIV/AIDS to Civil Society Organizations

HIV/AIDS mainstreaming has traditionally been equated with adjusting programs to be more relevant to beneficiaries affected by HIV/AIDS. Bitter experience is demonstrating, however, that civil society organizations (CSOs) are not immune to the impacts of AIDS within their own organizations. Few local CSOs are responding adequately to this threat, partly because they simply do not know the extent of these costs. This paper suggests how CSOs in sub-Saharan Africa can build organizational resilience in order to survive the loss of valuable staff, time and money that HIV/AIDS will cause. It also concludes with practical recommendations for their donors in how they can move beyond being concerned bystanders. [publisher’s description]

Enhancing the Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV (GIPA) in NGOs/CBOs in India

The handbook is a resource collection of information sheets and participatory activities for NGOs working on HIV/AIDS who want to work towards a greater involvement of people living with HIV (GIPA) in their work. It aims at sensitising NGOs, building individual skills and organisational capacities so that NGO management, staff and volunteers can discuss and plan together in a participatory way how to meaningfully involve people living with HIV in their organisation. [from introduction]

Integrating Pediatric Palliative Care into Home-Based Care: an Evaluation of 3 Home-Based Care Projects

In order to identify potentially effective models of home-based care (HBC) within which paediatric palliative care could be integrated, and to identify critical aspects requiring strengthening, the NMCF commissioned an in-depth evaluation of three NGOs that have been supported through the Goelama Program. The objectives of the evaluation were: to evaluate the current capacity of the three HBC projects to provide paediatric palliative care as a component of overall HBC - this focused on the overall management of the projects, as well as the competencies of carers to provide both general HBC and palliative care to children; To explore the possibilities for strengthening the provision of paediatric palliative care as an integrated component of HBC; and to explore the role of home-based carers and HBC projects in the provision of ART to children. [author’s description]

Mapping of HIV and AIDS Services and Resources in South Africa

The primary objective of the study was to identify organisations/institutions that provide HIV and AIDS services at the sub-district level, the range of services they provide and their funding sources. This in turn will inform sub-district and district management teams of the progress and impact of services provided and furnish them with tools to monitor the performance and activities on NGOs in their sub-districts and districts. It is hoped that the report will serve as a baseline for ongoing monitoring of the country’s response to the epidemic. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires, staff interviews and record reviews.

Control of Tuberculosis in an Urban Setting in Nepal: Public-Private Partnership

The objective of this document is to implement and evaluate a public–private partnership to deliver the internationally recommended strategy DOTS for the control of tuberculosis (TB) in Lalitpur municipality, Nepal, where it is estimated that 50% of patients with TB are managed in the private sector. [author’s description]

Private Sector Response to HIV and AIDS in Lesotho

This study attempted to determine the feasibility of a private sector led long-term intervention to reduce the HIV-infection rate among apparel workers and to provide care and support for those already infected. [author’s description]

Operations Research to Improve Financial Sustainability in Three Bolivian NGOs

Many NGOs providing reproductive health (RH) services are facing reductions in donor funding, requiring them to generate more of their own resources. Prosalud, CIES and APSAR, Bolivian NGOs, wanted to build skills in costing and market research to support efforts to improve financial sustainability. Staffs attended a one-week workshop, followed by implementation of three operations research (OR) studies designed to reinforce skills and generate information for decisionmaking. The Prosalud and CIES studies included the calculation of unit cost per service; measurement of client willingness to pay (WTP) higher prices for services, and a market segmentation assessment in selected areas where Prosalud clinics are located.

Working with the Private Sector for Child Health

In the majority of low and middle-income countries, the private sector presents significant opportunities for expanding the reach of essential child health services and products. Through better coordination with the private sector, governments and donors can improve the availability, quality, and effectiveness of child health services…This document assesses the current importance, and potential, of the private sector in contributing to child health. [author’s description]

Private-Public Partnership in Georgia: a Case Study of Contracting an NGO to Provide Specialist Health Services

This case study provides details of a partnership that emerged in Georgia following the initiation of health sector reforms in 1995. It mainly focuses on describing the details of how and why the public purchaser contracted a non-governmental provider to deliver a set of health services in Georgia. The case study is discussed with proper attention to the context within which this arrangement developed. The nature of the services provided was paediatric cardio-surgery, which can hardly be considered a basic essential health service.

Performance-Based Reimbursement Scheme: a Final Report of a Pilot Study

The NGO Service Delivery Program (NSDP) developed a system ensuring better access of the health services to the poorest segment of the population, along with raising revenue by providing fee-for services to the better off population. The former strategy highlights a safety net policy for the poorest segment, who are identified by participatory rapid appraisal technique and handed out a health benefit card. The latter strategy helps the NGOs to revise their service charges according to local demand and other factors. This report analyzes this pilot effort and its drawbacks and makes recommendations based on lessons learned. [adapted from author]

Results from Study of Clinical Staff Turnover Suggest New HR Strategies

The NGOs that comprise the USAID-funded NGO Service Delivery Program must control costs in order to improve their cost recovery rates. Costs associatied with high staff turnover are an important variable operating expense. An NSDP study of staff turnover has produced interesting findings contributing to new staff retention strategies. [introduction]

Finding Private-Sector Support for Primary Health Care in Bangladesh

NGOs that provide basic health care to the poor must become less dependent on donor support by diversifying their funding. The NGO Service Delivery Program (NSDP), a USAID-funded health care program in Bangladesh, is working with NGOs to find corporate sponsorship. [publisher’s description]

Reaching Out, Scaling Up: Eight Case Studes of Home and Community Care for and by People with HIV/AIDS

This report focuses on HIV/AIDS home and community care projects and programs that have been able to scale up or reach out, and in doing so have brought an improved quality of life to people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS. The initiatives are widely spread geographically, with five from Africa, two from Asia, and one from Latin America. The final chapter of this report revisits some of the main lessons learned through the practices, and examines both commonalities and differences. [adapted from author]

Engaging Local Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Response to HIV/AIDS

During the past few years, a number of key donor programs have scaled up their global response to the crisis of HIV and AIDS… The goal of this paper is to begin a discussion among donors, international and local NGOs, and multilateral and U.S. government representatives on how to effectively engage indigenous partners and transfer much-needed resources. [from preface]

Managing HIV/AIDS in the Workplace: Examples of Nine Non-Governmental Organizations in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe

This study aims to examine the range of impacts the [HIV/AIDS] pandemic has had on selected NGO partners of Oxfam operating in South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, and to make recommendations useful to NGOs, including Oxfam, donors, and policy-makers based on its results. [author’s description]