Documents & Reports

Ethiopia: An Emerging Family Planning Success Story

From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased nine fold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, non-governmental and public–private partnerships, and the government’s establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. [adapted from abstract]

Focus on Community-based Family Planning: Partnership with Uganda Ministry of Health

The Ugandan Government has an ambitious goal to reduce unmet need for family planning (FP) from its current 34% to 10% over the next 10 years. This brief shares experiences and lessons from capacity building for Family Planning at the national and district levels in Uganda.[adapted from introduction]

Improving Access to Family Planning Services in Rural Areas

Family planning (FP) services have been available in Nepal for over 50 years, most extensively from the public sector health system, with nongovernmental agencies involved from the very beginning. These services are largely delivered by
facility-based service providers, except for the distribution of condoms and pills and, occasionally,
injectables. Community workers such as VHWs and MCHWs could potentially fill the gap if they were given the necessary knowledge and skills. [adapted from resource]

Recruitment of Community Health Workers

This item is chapter eight in the book Developing and Strengthening Community Health Worker Programs at Scale. This chapter will help readers to consider key questions, recommendations, and challenges for CHW [Community Health Worker] recruitment planning and implementation, including selection, resource availability, and addressing CHW retention. [adapted from introduction]

Reducing Maternal and Neonatal Mortality in Indonesia: Saving Lives, Saving the Future. Chapter Five: Quality of Care

Quality of care is at the heart of any health care program, and yet it is defined in different ways and is difficult to measure. It is determined not only by the capabilities of health facilities and health providers but also by many other variables. Even among formal research studies, the variables measured differ from study to study. [from introduction]

Community Health Workers and Children with Special Health Care Needs

Children from traditionally underserved and marginalized communities have more health problems and less accessible, effective health care delivery than children generally. When children from underserved communities also have special health care needs, the problems they face are further compounded. The engagement of community health workers (CHWs) has emerged as a very promising strategy for addressing the persistent disparities in the delivery of health care and related service to Children with Special Health Care Needs. [from introduction]

Faith-Based Health Services as an Alternative to Privatization? A Ugandan Case Study

This study examines the delivery of health services by faith-based organizations (FBOs) as a possible alternative to privatization in Uganda, where these not-for-profit health providers have been servicing communities since the second half of the 19th century. Their facilities focus on primary care and operate in rural, under-serviced areas, charging affordable user fees, while also treating those who cannot pay. [from executive summary]

Human Resources for Health: Foundation for Universal Health Coverage and the Post-2015 Development Agenda

This report describes the proceedings and main outcomes of the Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health in Recife, Brazil, from 10 to 13 November 2013.

Context Analysis: Close-to-Community Providers in Mozambique

This report combines findings from a desk review,a mapping of [Close-to-Community] CTC providers and data collected during qualitative explorations carried out in two selected districts of Maputo Province as part of the context analysis. [from introduction]

African Participation and Partnership in Performan-Based Financing: A Case Study in Global Health Policy

Participation is a key policy concept in global health, and relates to the ability of stakeholders to engage with and shape health policy at four intersecting levels: Local, national, regional and global. Such engagement remains the key normative aim behind debates about furthering more equitable health diplomacy and has, as a result, been increasingly integrated into the agenda of global agencies, including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria and the World Bank. [from executive summary]

Field Guide for Implementation of the Strategy and Plan of Action for Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Congenital Syphilis in the Americas

This field guide aims to: Summarize the lessons learned during the first three years of
implementation of the Strategy and Plan of Action for the Elimination of
Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Congenital Syphilis. And provide health authorities, program managers, and other health personnel with practical guidance on updating or developing plans for accelerated implementation of the Regional Strategy and Plan of Action. [adapted from introduction]

Developing Collective Leadership for Health Care

The [National Health Service] is confronted by radically changing demographic pressures and hugely increasing demands. Alongside these is the need to build public confidence after several high-profile scandals, to increase productivity and to promote innovation in health and social care. This all comes as public sector financial cuts are implemented on a large scale. How can health care organisations respond effectively to these challenges? [from introduction]

Enhancing Access to Current Literature by Health Workers in Rural Uganda and Community Health Problem Solving

An outreach activity, which originally targeted health professionals and student nurses in rural Uganda, was extended to the community with a focus on addressing the most prevalent diseases/health problems reported by the Health Management Information System (HMIS) of the Uganda Ministry of Health.

Family Planning and Linkages with US Health and Development Goals

To examine linkages between family planning and health and development outcomes, the CSIS Global Health Policy Center led a delegation to Ethiopia in February 2014.

Integrating Family Planning into HIV Programs: Evidence-Based Practices

The integration of family planning (FP) and HIV services improves sexual and reproductive health outcomes by providing both services under one programmatic umbrella. This type of integration refers to the delivery of health services, and it is a subset of closely related but broader linkages between family planning and HIV policies, funding, programs, and advocacy. [from authors]

Expanding Utilization of Family Planning

[T]oday, more than 222 million women in developing countries want to delay or stop childbearing but lack access to an effective method of contraception. For these women and their families, FHWs could serve as an invaluable resource, providing education, counseling, and other essential family planning services within their local communities. [adapted from introduction]

What’s the World Health Organization For? Final Report from the Centre on Global Health Security Working Group on Health Governance

The Chatham House Working Group on Health Governance was formed to consider, in the first instance, the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the international system that supports global health. This was done in the knowledge that the WHO had recently embarked on a programme of reform, which had its roots in the acute funding pressures that it was experiencing. It was therefore
envisaged as a complementary exercise to the internal reform process. [from preface]

A Decade of Determination and Dedication: Improving Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Ethiopia

Ethiopia has made tremendous progress in providing health services to its large (87 million), and largely rural (83%), population. This is reflected in significant improvements in many maternal and child health indicators over the past ten years, including roughly a halving of infant and under-five mortality and an almost five-fold increase in the modern method contraceptive prevalence rate. At the heart of this expansion and its success is the health worker. [from introduction]

How Do We Know if a Program Made a Difference? A Guide to Statistical Methods for Program Impact Evaluation

This manual provides an overview of core statistical and econometric methods for program impact evaluation (and, more generally, causal modelling). More detailed and advanced than typical brief reviews of the subject, it also strives to be more approachable to a wider range of readers than the advanced theoretical literature on program impact evaluation estimators. It thus forms a bridge between more basic treatments of the essentials of impact evaluation methods and the more advanced discussions. [from abstract]

Fact Sheet: Las conductas de riesgo para hombres indígenas que residen en las zonas de alto y bajo reporte de casos de VIH

This fact sheet was developed by teams of Guatemalan public health professionals who participated long-term capacity building process to promote secondary analysis of the National Maternal and Child Health Survey 2008-2009 (Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil – ENSMI 2008-2009) [from abstract]

Burundi PLACE Report. Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts

Methods for monitoring and evaluating HIV prevention are urgently needed. Because resources for interventions are limited, there is an urgent need to focus interventions where they are most cost-effective. The approach taken in the PLACE method is to identify priority prevention areas and within these areas identify public places (such as hotels, bars, and events) where people meet new sexual partners. These places are potential intervention venues where the individuals most likely to transmit HIV can be accessed. Venues and events are identified by informants in the community.

Assessment of Health Management Information System (HMIS) Performance in SNNPR, Ethiopia

This document reports on the assessment findings that serve as a basis for formulating interventions to improve the HMIS performance and as a baseline for future monitoring of HMIS performance improvement in the zones. Additionally, lessons learned from this assessment will further inform needed modifications and/or adaptations of the HMIS performance assessment tools to be used for assessments in the remaining zones of SNNPR. [from introduction]

Fulfilling the Health Agenda for Women and Children: The 2014 Report

This report includes an updated, detailed profile for each of the 75 Countdown countries, which together account for more than 95% of the global burden of maternal, newborn and child death. The report shows that progress has been impressive in some areas, but it also highlights the vast areas of unfinished business that must be prioritized in the post-2015 framework. [adapted from introduction]

Monitoring Progress Towards Universal Health Coverage at Country and Global Levels: Framework, Measures and Targets

This paper proposes a framework for tracking country and global progress towards UHC [Universal Health Coverage]; its aim is to inform and guide these discussions and assessment of both aggregate and equitable coverage of essential health services as well as financial protection. Monitoring progress towards these two components of UHC will be complementary and critical to achieving desirable health outcome goals, such as ending preventable deaths and promoting healthy life expectancy and also reducing poverty and protecting household incomes. [from abstract]

Rewarding Provider Performance to Enable a Healthy Start to Life: Evidence from Argentina's Plan Nacer

Argentina’s Plan Nacer provides insurance for maternal and child health care to uninsured families. This paper analyzes the impact of Plan Nacer on birth outcomes. The analysis uses data from the universe of birth records in seven Argentine provinces for 2004 to 2008 and exploits the geographic phasing in of Plan Nacer over time. [adapted from abstract]

What a Difference a State Makes: Health Reform in Andhra Pradesh

This paper describes and analyzes Andhra Pradesh’s Aarogyasri scheme [in India], which covers against the costs of around 900 high-cost procedures delivered in secondary and tertiary hospitals. Using a new household survey, the authors find that 80 percent of families are eligible, equal to about 68 million people, and 85 percent of these families know they are covered; only one-quarter, however, know that the benefit package is limited. [adapted from abstract]

Does Involvement of Local NGOs Enhance Public Service Delivery? Cautionary Evidence from a Malaria-Prevention Evaluation in India

Using data from an experimental supportive intervention to India’s malaria control program, this paper studies the impact of leveraging local non-state capacity to promote mosquito net usage and recommended fever care-seeking patterns. The supportive activities were conducted simultaneously by three nongovernmental organizations in two endemic districts in the state of Orissa. The study finds that program impact varied significantly by location. [from abstract]

Encouraging Health Insurance for the Informal Sector : A Cluster Randomized Trial

This paper reports the results of a cluster randomized control trial in which 3,000 households in 20 communes in Vietnam were randomly assigned at baseline to a control group or one of three treatments: an information leaflet about Vietnam’s government-run scheme and the benefits of health insurance; a voucher entitling eligible household members to 25 percent off their annual premium; and both. [from abstract]

Strengthening Malaria Service Delivery Through Supportive Supervision and Community Mobilization in an Endemic Indian Setting: An Evaluation of Nested Delivery

This paper tests the effectiveness of two service delivery models designed to promote recommended behaviors, including prompt treatment seeking for febrile illness, in Odisha India. The tested modules include supportive supervision of community health workers and community mobilization promoting appropriate health seeking. [from abstract]

Strategic Plan: Department of Health 2014/15 to 2018/19

The public health sector works to: promote health, prevent illness and injury, and influence the socio-economic and environmental determinants of health – including the social, economic, physical and environmental
factors that affect health. [from authors]