National Policy

Zambian Health Workers Retention Scheme (ZHWRS) 2003-2004

To tackle problems of staff shortage and maldistribution, in 2003 the Government of the Republic of Zambia in partnership with the Royal Netherlands Government embarked on a Pilot Zambian Health Workers Retention Scheme (ZHWRS) for health professionals. The scheme had as first objective to replace the Dutch doctors, working under the bilateral agreement between Zambia and the Netherlands. A regular review process was included as part of the scheme. This report is from the Midterm review that took place in January 2005. [from introduction]

Perceptions of Hospital Managers Regarding the Impact of Doctors' Community Service

In South Africa, the distribution of doctors is skewed in favour of the urban areas, but it is not uncommon to find many peri-urban facilities in short supply of doctors. In 1997, the South African government introduced compulsory community service (CS) to address this uneven distribution of doctors in the country. The CS doctors posted to the Letaba-Sekororo hospital complex in Limpopo Province refused to take up their appointments for various reasons, ranging from lack of supervision to poor basic infrastructure. This study is one of the earliest conducted to understand the perceptions of hospital managers on the impact of the national community service on the health service. [publisher’s description]

Checklist for Review of the Human Resource Development Component of National Plans to Control Tuberculosis

The checklist described in this document has been developed as a tool to assist those involved in a systematic review of the human resource development component of the NTP. This component is often referred to as “training.” In this document, the term training is used in a broader context than the more traditional interpretation of the term, where training refers to organization and implementation of training courses. Training in this document is often replaced by the term “HR development” to stress the need for a broader and more long-term approach within NTPs. [from introduction]

Human Resources for Health in Tanzania: Challenges, Policy Options and Knowledge Gaps

NORAD commissioned this study in order to learn how the human resource challenge currently is being addressed in Tanzania. A second aim of the study was to identify knowledge gaps for the development of evidence-based human resource strategies in Tanzania. [from introduction]

South African Legislation on Traditional Medicine

This policy brief discusses the efforts of the South African government to create legislation for the country’s traditional medicine, and provides a synopsis of national initiatives that are transforming the field of traditional knowledge. It also examines what these changes mean for the users of traditional medicines. [author’s description]

Report on Human Resources: Tanzania Joint Health Sector Review 2003

The human resources for health strategy in the context of ongoing reforms, including HRH planning, development and management was one of the major components that was undertaken as part of the 2002 review of the health sector. The main objective was to propose strategies and approaches for developing a new and implementable long term plan which should address current health sector and local government reform needs and requirements. [author’s description]

Export Health Worker? For Uganda, an Indecent Proposal Until...

This paper challenges the decision by the Government of Uganda to export health workers to developed countries. It argues that while the Ugandan National Health Policy emphasises strengthening the numbers of health personnel in order to be able to provide a minimum health care package and to redress the imbalances in distribution of skilled staff, it is totally contradictory to start exporting the few personnel available.

Supporting the Retention of Health Resources for Health: SACD Policy Context

This report presents a review of issues in the regional policy context that are of relevance to the retention of human resources for the health sector (HRH) within the region, based on a rapid appraisal in selected countries and at regional level. This work specifically focussed on the actions needed to stem the flow of international migration by encouraging the retention of health staff within countries. A particular concern raised across countries is staff retention in the public and rural services that preferentially serve the poorest populations. Importantly, policy documents and national

Maximizing Quality of Care through Health Sector Reform: the Role of Quality Assurance Strategies

This document aims to facilitate the development of quality-oriented health sector reforms by providing a clear conceptual framework that can serve as a roadmap for policymakers and senior managers. By taking advantage of opportunities to integrate quality assurance activities into health sector reforms, healthcare leaders can maximize the effectiveness of reform and move toward optimizing health outcomes for the citizens of Latin America and the Caribbean. [author’s description]

Overview of the Nursing Workforce in Latin America

Human resources become increasingly relevant in this context. Health human resource (HHR) is currently experiencing a three-fold problem, which encompasses old issues, together with the effects of reform, and the consequences of globalisation. This includes the workforce crisis in nursing which, facing all kinds of difficulties, requires complex in-depth analysis, synergies and alliances in order to ensure quality nursing services.

Guidance Note on Health Care Worker Safety from HIV and Other Blood Borne Infections

The safety of heath care workers (HCWs) who take care of people with HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases is of paramount importance. Occupational transmission of blood borne infections is not regarded as a common problem in developed country settings, but this is not the case in resource poor countries where the incidence and impact of such exposures is under-reported and is now becoming appreciated as an important risk factor for HCWs.

Nursing Workforce Planning: Mapping the Policy Trail

Planning for the efficient and effective delivery of health care services to meet the health needs of the populations is a significant challenge. Globally policy makers, educators, health service researchers, leaders of unions and professional associations, and other key stakeholders struggle with the best way to plan for a workforce to fulfill the health needs of populations.

Accreditation and Other External Quality Assessment Systems for Healthcare

This review of experience in accreditation and external quality assessment systems was produced at the request of the UK Department for International Development in India. The purpose of this review is to describe where External Quality Assessment fits in the broader set of levers that exist for engaging with health care providers and organisations in developing countries in order to improve quality and affordability of care.

Managing Health Professional Migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Canada: a Stakeholder Inquiry into Policy Options

Canada is a major recipient of foreign-trained health professionals, notably physicians from South Africa and other sub-Saharan African countries. Nurse migration from these countries, while comparatively small, is rising. African countries, meanwhile, have a critical shortage of professionals and a disproportionate burden of disease. What policy options could Canada pursue that balanced the right to health of Africans losing their health workers with the right of these workers to seek migration to countries such as Canada? [author’s description]

Rising to the Challenges of Human Resources for Health in Kenya: Developing Empirical Evidence for Policy Making

This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the human resources for health (HRH) currently available and required to reach the targets set by the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in both the public sector and the faith-based organizations (FBOs) in Kenya. A stratified convenience sample of health facilities at all levels of care (primary, secondary, tertiary) in each of the eight provinces was selected for the assessment. Detailed information on human resources and provision of services related to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), malaria, maternal health, and child health was collected.

World Health Report 2006: National Health Workforce Strategies

This chapter of the World Health Report provides a framework for developing a national HRH strategic plan including: building trust and managing expectations; fair and cooperative governing; leadership; strategic intelligence; and workforce institutions.

Terms of Employment and Working Conditions in Health Sector Reforms

This report has been prepared by the International Labour Office as the basis for discussions at the Joint Meeting on Terms of Employment and Working Conditions in Health Sector Reforms. It reviews the impact of health sector reforms on health workers and the implications of changes in employment and pay, labour relations, working conditions and terms of employment on the general performance of health systems in the light of the links between health policy, human health and the economy. [preface]

Health Systems in Transition: Learning from Experience

The paper outlines a conceptual framework that integrates the key strategies that must be addressed and linked if policy-makers are to create the kinds of health care system to which the citizens of [central and eastern Europe and Eurasia] are entitled. It examines how financing, coordinated service delivery and quality measures matter independently, and it highlights the need to interweave them effectively with citizen and community participation mechanisms and a far-reaching concern for public health. It also reviews the complex issues that hinder or help the implementation of reforms and suggests how an understanding of context, stakeholders and capacity will be critical to delivering change.

Survival and Retention Strategies for Malawian Health Professionals

The broad objective of this paper is to contribute to the retention of health workers in Malawi by providing an enhanced understanding of health workers’ coping strategies, together with the identification of possible strategies that could impact on their retention. [from author]

Strengthening the Quality of Human Resources for Health Oriented Toward the District and Village Levels in Lao People's Democratic Republic

This document contains a country analysis on HRH covering situations, trends, and priority problems including issues in undifferentiated strategies of health sector development for remote areas and the shortage and maldistribution of well trained nurses and community nurses. It also includes a discussion on HRH development, strategies and policies in Lao PDR. [adapted from author]

Human Resources on Health (HRH) for Foreign Countries: A Case of Nurse "Surplus" in Indonesia

The nurse program for foreign countries in Indonesia has been carried out since 1996. In the beginning, this program attempted to solve the false ‘surplus’ problem of nurses in Indonesia. Recently, however, the MOH has developed serious concerns with this program. There have been several efforts to promote the nurse program for foreign countries starting with the improvement of education, recruitment and other mechanisms related to nurses for foreign countries. Some achievements, strengths, weaknesses, potentials and threats are discussed in this paper.

Guidelines for Human Resources for Health Policy and Plan Development at Country Level (Draft)

The main aim of these guidelines is to support countries in the Human Resource Development and management process of assessing the human resource for health situation, policy and plan development with the view of achieving some level of comprehensiveness and consistency country level. The guidelines will discuss HRH processes, situation analysis, policy and plan development with reference to the overall context of national health policies and strategies. These guidelines describe how to formulate, develop, review HRH situations, policies and plans with the flexibility necessary for each country context.

Australia's Health Workforce: Research Report

Australia is experiencing workforce shortages across a number of health professions despite a significant and growing reliance on overseas trained health workers. The shortages are even more acute in rural and remote areas. It is critical to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the available health workforce, and to improve its distribution. This report describes the Australian government’s objectives of developing a more sustainable and responsive health workforce while maintaining a commitment to high quality and safe health outcomes. A set of national workforce objectives are also proposed.

Health Information System: National Policy and Strategy

This document intends to provide a policy and strategic framework for management of health information, use of information in planning and management of health services and monitoring health sector performance. [from preface]

Commonwealth Code of Practice for the International Recruitment of Health Workers

The Code develops a consensus approach to dealing with the problem of international recruitment of health workers, while remaining sensitive to the needs of recipient countries and the migratory rights of individual health professionals. The Code covers issues of transparency, fairness, mutuality of benefits, compensation/reparation/restitution, selection procedures, and registration. [Description from author]

Health Sector Policy: Government of Rwanda

The Health Sector Policy is the basis of national health planning and the first point of reference for all actors working in the health sector. It sets the health policy objectives, identifies the priority health interventions for meeting these objectives, outlines the role of each level in the health system, and provides guidelines for improved planning and evaluation of activities in the health sector. One of the priority interventions elaborated is Human Resources. [adapted from introduction]

Policy Brief Two: Rehabilitating the Workforce: The Key to Scaling up MNCH (World Health Report 2005: Making Every Mother and Child Count)

This policy brief from the World Health Report 2005 argues that it will not be possible to effectively scale up Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) care without confronting the global health workforce crisis. It highlights how lack of managerial autonomy, gender discrimination and violence in the workplace, dwindling salaries, poor working conditions and some donor interventions have all contributed to a lack of productivity, as well as the rural to urban, public to private and poor to rich country brain drain and migration. The brief argues the need to plan the expansion of the workforce while implementing corrective measures to rehabilitate productivity and morale.