Antiretroviral Treatment

Provision of Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Limited Settings: A Review of Experience up to August 2003

This background paper aims to increase understanding of the requirements for introducing and scaling up provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as part of comprehensive HIV/AIDS programmes in resource-poor countries. The paper provides an overview of experience and lessons learned with regard to: the feasibility of ART in resource-poor settings; the different approaches being taken to delivery of ART; and the issues to be considered in scaling up ART provision, including human resources. [adapted from author]

Treating 3 Million by 2005: Making it Happen, The WHO Strategy

This WHO strategy aims to set out in clear detail how life-long antiretroviral treatment can be provided to 3 million people living with HIV/AIDS in poor countries by the end of 2005. Core principles include urgency, equity and sustainability. HIV/AIDS has devastated the populations and health services of many developing countries. We must act now. Further, since this magnitude of scaling up HIV/AIDS treatment has never been attempted before, we must learn by doing. [summary from author]

Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness: Interim Guidelines for First-Level Facility Health Workers

The WHO IMAI guidelines support the rapid expansion of access to ART by supporting the shifts of key tasks to multi-purpose health workers at first-level facilities located in the community (health centres and clinics). By preparing nurses and clinical aids to provide acute care to adults, many opportunistic infections can be treated and the patient stabilized for ARV treatment without referral to district clinic. Management of patients near their home is important for equity and to achieve high levels of ARV adherence. [adapted from publisher’s description]

Antiretroviral Treatment in Developing Countries: The Peril of Neglecting Private Providers

Action is underway to increase access to antiretroviral drugs, especially in countries with high rates of HIV. The role of private providers is largely ignored, although they are an important source of care for stigmatizing diseases in many poor countries. Evidence is emerging that antiretroviral drugs are leaking into formal and informal private markets. Uncontrolled use of drugs in the private sector will lead to rapid development of HIV resistance. Countries require guidance and support from international policy makers and pharmaceutical companies to implement strategies for working with private providers.

Public Health Approach to Antiretroviral Treatment: Overcoming Constraints

Triple-drug combination antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has yielded remarkable results in affluent countries and some middle-income countries such as Brazil. Lessons can be learned from these examples, but this publication reviews the experiences of ARV programmes already underway in countries with very severe HIV epidemics but severely constrained resources, as in most of Africa and part of the Caribbean. The publication aims to show how some of the key policy issues for scaling up HIV/AIDS treatment have been dealt with and to identify common elements that should be considered by everyone seeking to provide HIV/AIDS care on a significant scale.

Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Care: Service Delivery and Human Resources Perspectives

Results of a study of human resources and antiretroviral therapy (ART) at 41 sites in 11 countries, presented in three sections: an overview of service delivery models for ART, a more in-depth account of the systems studied and a report of an international workshop on HRH and ART delivery.

Zambia HIV/AIDS Workforce Study: Preparing for Scale-up

This report presents the findings of a study conducted at 16 healthcare sites in Zambia offering voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (P-MTCT), and antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. The study period, including design, implementation, and data analysis, was April to June 2003. The purpose of the study was to assist the Government of Zambia in determining whether it will have sufficient staff to be able to scale up VCT, P-MTCT, and ARV treatment to reach its targeted numbers of clients.