East Asia & Pacific

Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development: Country Summary Report for Indonesia

Indonesia, a low-middle income country of around 242 million people, has made impressive gains in health over the past few decades, notably in increased life expectancy and reduced infant and child mortality rates. There has been less progress in improving maternal mortality and malnutrition. [from abstract]

Overcoming Access Barriers to Health Services Through Membership-Based Microfinance Organizations: A Review of Evidence from South Asia

It is a challenge for the poor to overcome the barriers to accessing health services. Membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes can improve health outcomes for the poor. This study reviewed the evidence
published between 1993 and 2013 on the role of membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes in improving health outcomes for the poor in South Asia. [from abstract]

Progress Toward Universal Health Coverage in ASEAN

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. [from abstract]

Policy Brief: Strengthening Vital Statistics Systems

The Policy Brief has looked into different systems that produce data on causes of death and laid out some options and potential strategies that countries might follow to rapidly and cost-effectively improve the cause of death information that these systems produce. This in turn would greatly benefit national health planning and increase critical knowledge about disease burden in the region as well as provide accurate information about how it is changing. [from introduction]

Purchasing Arrangements with the Private Sector to Provide Primary Health Care in Underserved Areas

The health systems of most countries in the region are characterized by the provision of services through both public and private providers, often in parallel or in competition with each other. This has raised the option for governments to purchase services from the private sector, to address gaps in services particularly for the poor and underserved. This policy brief reviews the evidence base of government purchasing primary care services from the private sector.

The Impact of Knowledge Management on Organisational Performance

Knowledge management is a process that transforms individual knowledge into organisational knowledge. The aim of this paper is to show that through creating, accumulating, organising and utilising knowledge, organisations can enhance organisational performance. [from abstract]

Community Health Promotion Volunteers in Taiwan: Their Value to Nurses

In Taiwan, volunteers make a significant contribution to the health workforce. In this paper, we explain the volunteer’s role and describe both the benefits and barriers associated with volunteering as a health worker in Taiwan. We also outline the crucial function of volunteers in supporting community nursing work. [from abstract]

Health Sector Response to Gender-based Violence: An assessment of the Asia Pacific Region

This document reports the outcome of an assessment and review of existing approaches to and models of health sector responses to gender-based violence in the Asia Pacific region. [adapted from author]

Adapting Pacific Medical Internships to Changing Contexts

This policy brief outlines current and needed medical internship programs in the Pacific and the policy implications. [adapted from author]

Accreditation of Healthcare Professionals' Education in Pacific Island Countries: Evidence and Options

This brief discusses accreditation of health worker education programs, evidence on accreditation models, the importance of accreditation in the Pacific and the policy implications. [adapted from author]

Commissioning the Education of Healthcare Professionals for Pacific Island Countries

This brief outlines the issues surrounding commissioning of health professionals education and training, the challenges and establishing systems to help Pacific Island Countries manage the existing and future health workforce effectively. [adapted from author]

Medical Education and Training in the Pacific Island Countries: Evidence and Options

This brief outlines the continuum of medical education and training for the Pacific health workforce and the policy implications of the situation. [adapted from author]

Information Needs to Manage Pacific Health Worker Migration

This paper reports the findings of a six country migration study to help fill information and knowledge gaps by visiting selected Pacific Island Countries and collecting available data on migrating and returning health workers. Information was also compiled on policy and procedures governing exit from public service, and the emigration and immigration of health personnel. [adapted from summary]

Factors Affecting Learning and Teaching for Medicines Supply Management Training in Pacific Island Countries: A Realist View

The focus of this review was to determine what cultural and learning factors need to be considered when developing a curriculum for South Pacific pharmaceutical health personnel who work across a range of practice environments. [from abstract]

Regulation and Licensing of Healthcare Professionals in Pacific Island Countries

This brief discusses the need for registration and licensing and their importance to health outcomes, as well as the options and policy implications of such a system for Pacific Island Countries. [adapted from author]

Expanded and Advances Health Practitioners, and Their Role and Relevance in the Pacific

Pacific health workforce planners must consider the potential impact on existing models of care and roles of advanced practitioners from the increasing number of medical graduates from both within and outside the region; particularly, the balance of doctors’ roles with those of established advanced health practitioners. [from author]

Accreditation of Healthcare Professional Education Programs: A Review of International Trends and Current Approaches in Pacific Island Countries

This review of accreditation for healthcare professionals training and education describes international trends and approaches to the
accreditation of education programs or pathways that prepare graduates for entry to a professional register or to extend scopes of practice. [from author]

Medical Internship Programs in the Pacific: Current Situation and Future Challenges

This review describes international trends and approaches to the planning and delivery of medical internship programs relevant to the future development and strengthening of medical education in Pacific Island countries. [from introduction]

Regulation and Licensing of Healthcare Professionals: A Review of International Trends and Current Approaches in Pacific Island Countries

This review describes international trends and approaches to regulatory and licensing systems and the integration of overseas trained healthcare professionals, including international medical graduates. [from summary]

Stories and Strategies - Public Health Emergencies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Phase of the Sexual and Reproductive Health Program in Crisis and Post-Crisis Settings in the Asia Pacific Region

The following paper is a synthesis of the findings of researchers on training transfer and efficacy of the Sexual and Reproductive Health Program in Crisis and Post-Crisis Settings in the Asia Pacific Region, which was designed to address sexual and reproductive health in all phases of the disaster cycle, with a particular focus on preparedness and coordinated response and the importance of human resources for an effective response. [adapted from abstract]

Mapping of Faith-Based Responses to Violence against Women and Girls in the Asia-Pacific Region

This report presents findings from a mapping initiative that aimed to capture how faith-based organizations respond to violence against women and girls in the Asia-Pacific region. [from summary]

Why Do They Leave and Where Do They Go? Exit Interviewing of Resigning Staff

To assist in filling the information gap on the reasons for migration and mobility of health workers in six Pacific island countries, the authors designed this survey template to collect information on why health professionals leave service, what they intend doing and where they intend going after leaving. [adapted from author]

Evaluating Primary Health Care Policies: A Step Towards Identifying Human Resource Issues in Commune Health Stations in Vietnam

This review documents the ways in which primary health care, specifically human resources in primary health care, has been evaluated in low- and middle income countries with a focus given to countries that have undergone health sector reforms similar to Vietnam. [adapted from author]

Migration and Mobility of Skilled Health Workers from Selected Pacific Island Countries

This report examines international and internal migration of skilled health workers (SHW) from six Pacific Island countries (Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu) to review recent data and research concerned with migration of SHWs and to present estimates of the numbers of SHWs from the selected countries who were working within the health sector of an overseas country around the year 2000. [adapted from summary]

Exit Interviews: Determining Why Health Staff Leave

This study found that limited data collection systems and lack of exit interviews has meant that up-to-date, reliable and accurate data regarding all exiting health workers (HW) (not only those who intend to emigrate) are not readily available. Without such datasets, the dynamics of mobility and migration within the Pacific health workforce remain poorly understood and the development of strategies to retain HW severely hampered. [from author]

Child Health Nurses in the Solomon Islands: Lessons for the Pacific and Other Developing Countries

The objectives of this study were to understand the roles of nurses with advanced training in paediatrics in the Solomon Islands and the importance of these roles to child health; to understand how adequately equipped child health nurses feel for these roles; and to identify the training needs, difficulties and future opportunities. [adapted from abstract]

Analysis of Policy Implications and Challenges of the Cuban Health Assistance Program Related to Human Resources for Health in the Pacific

This paper reviews the magnitude and form of Cuban medical cooperation in the Pacific and analyses its implications for health policy, human resource capacity and overall development assistance for health in the region. [from abstract]

Improving Partnerships between Health Workers and the Community for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health

This policy brief addresses the role of partnerships between health workers and the community, for the purposes of improving maternal, newborn and child health in resource-constrained settings, with a particular focus on the Asia-Pacific region. [from author]

Human Resource for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health at the Community Level: What Do We Know?

This policy brief summarises the critical workforce issues
highlighted from a review of the literature of maternal,
newborn and child health services at community
level, with a particular focus on the Asia Pacific region. [from author]

Health Sector Response to Gender-Based Violence: Case Studies of the Asia Pacific Region

These case studies provide country-level information on the prevalence of gender based violence; the policy framework; health sector response; health worker capacity building; and successes, challenges and lessons learned dealing with gender based violence in the health sector. Countries included are: Bangladesh, Malaysia, Maldives, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Timor-Leste. [adapted from author]